Georgia - annual report 2018

Legal colloquium with the participation of Dr Frank Engelmann, lawyer, Dr Anja Teschner, Vice President of the Regional Court of Berlin, David Asatiani, President of the Georgian Bar, Teresa Thalhammer, IRZ, and Lasha Kalandadze, lawyer (from left to right)
Legal colloquium with the participation of Dr Frank Engelmann, lawyer, Dr Anja Teschner, Vice President of the Regional Court of Berlin, David Asatiani, President of the Georgian Bar, Teresa Thalhammer, IRZ, and Lasha Kalandadze, lawyer (from left to right)

Strategic Framework

Legal Policy Starting Point

Georgia continues to pursue its path of European integration and is already engaged in implementation of the Association Agenda that was defined within the framework of the Association Agreement between Georgia and the EU. Papers on necessary legislative amendments have already been developed or legal reforms initiated in numerous areas such as public procurements, customs and trade, intellectual property rights or company law as a means of harmonisation with EU law. Nevertheless, this progress and the effects of the flourishing tourism sector remain largely unnoticeable in the economic situation of large sections within society.

It follows, therefore, that the domestic situation in Georgia during the reporting year was marked by turbulence. Among other things, the General Public Prosecutor resigned from office in response to a controversial case within the criminal justice system that had triggered widespread outrage in civil society. Facing sustained protest and embroiled in dispute within his own party, Prime Minister Giorgi Kvirikashvili from the ruling “Georgian Dream” Alliance ultimately stepped down as well. He was succeeded by the former Finance Minister Mamuka Bakhtadze, who carried out a cabinet reshuffle and reduced the number of departments, but otherwise has not initiated any major reform steps. Popular dissatisfaction with the government continued to grow, and the political rifts within the country again became apparent during the presidential elections of October 2018. Although a sweeping constitutional reform had removed any real powers from the political office, the election campaign was acrimonious and in places featured dubious assistance from administrative authorities. Salome Zourabichvili, who is associated with the ruling party, eventually emerged victorious from the run-off at the end of November.

The constitutional reform that had been passed in March entered into force with the presidential inauguration. This reform completes the country‘s transition to a parliamentary system of government. One of the important reforms referred to the appointment of the Chair of the Supreme Court, which until then had been the responsibility of the State President, but from now on will fall within the remit of the High Council of Justice. The position had been vacant since the former chairman, Prof. Nino Gvenetadze, resigned in August 2018. In view of the upcoming constitutional reforms, a conscious decision had been made for the next incumbent not to be chosen by the President so as to avoid creating ‘facts on the ground‘. Among the reasons why this position is so important to the Georgian judiciary is that the chair of the court also holds the Chair of the High Council of Justice, the self-governing body within the judiciary.

Overall Concept

The IRZ continues to focus its efforts in Georgia on the provision of technical support and implementation of the reform projects in criminal law. For legislation projects, this takes place in cooperation with the Parliamentary Legal Issues Committee, as well as with relevant stakeholders within the judiciary, so primarily the Supreme Court and other courts, the General Public Prosecutor‘s Office in Georgia and the Georgian Bar.

Moreover, cooperation also includes meaningful exchange of information between the members of these partner institutions and their German colleagues to discuss legal issues and developments from a comparative perspective. Collaborations with the Tbilisi State University and the law faculties at other universities, as well as with the Penitentiary and Probation Training Center (PPTC), are therefore important elements in the project work.

Foci of Activity in 2018

Constitutional Law/Human Rights and their Enforceability

  • National moot court on constitutional law for Georgian law students in Batumi
  • Publication on anti-discrimination law

Civil and Commercial Law

  • Legal colloquium in cooperation with the German Federal Bar on judgement by default, the burden of proof and other issues of civil procedural law in Tbilisi

Public Law

  • "@mediasocieties Georgia 2018“: introduction to European media law for stakeholders in the Georgian media sector (funded by the Federal Foreign Office)

Administration of Justice

  • Working visit to Düsseldorf by a delegation from the Tbilisi City Court (court administration) to learn about the planning of court buildings
  • Train the trainer for educators at the Georgian Penitentiary and Probation Training Center (PPTC)
  • Legislative advice for the Legal Issues Committee in the Georgian parliament on various planned reforms of the country‘s Code of Criminal Procedure
  • Participation in expert talks by the German section of the International Commission of Jurists during a study trip to Georgia

Criminal Law and Penitentiary Law

  • Conference on the topic of domestic violence (implementation of the Istanbul Convention) in cooperation with the Tbilisi State University
  • Two practical training courses on European standards in investigation methods and pre-trial detention
  • Further training for public prosecutors in Tbilisi on policy to combat and investigate corruption
  • Courses on the methodical drafting of criminal judgements in courts of first instance in cooperation with the High School of Justice / continued development of the manual (of forms) for judges and public prosecutors
  • Conference in Tbilisi on the planned reform of criminal law on narcotics
  • Online publication “German-Georgian Criminal Law Journal“

Projects funded by the European Union

EU Technical Assistance Project: Support to the Independence, Accountability and Efficiency of the Judiciary in Georgia

The IRZ has been a partner in this EU-funded project in Georgia since October 2016. During the 41-month term, a consortium led by Human Dynamics (HD) is supporting the Supreme Court, the High Council of Justice, the High School of Justice, the Constitutional Court and other courts in increasing the independence, efficiency and impartiality of the Georgian judiciary.

The IRZ contributes to the project in the areas of European standards for the protection of human rights by dispatching short-term experts, but especially through its Georgian long-term expert, Lali Ckhetia. The aim is to raise awareness for the significance of the European Convention on Human Rights among Georgian judges and to ensure that they consider case-law by the European Court of Human Rights in their decisions. Access to the important ECHR judgements was facilitated for this purpose, and they are now available in a database, some of them with a Georgian translation. There were also seminars for judges in order to train methods of referencing judgements by the ECHR.

In addition, numerous activities during the reporting year were targeted at legal staff at the courts (assistants to the judges and members of the academic service), as their competencies are highly relevant to the quality of case-law and this aspect has been given insufficient consideration in the past.

Another important reform in 2018 was the introduction of an IT system for the allocation of cases at court, similar to the case allocation at a German court. Underlying the introduction of this case allocation system is the intention to prevent the exertion of any influence in the assignment of cases to individual judges and hence to strengthen the independence of the judiciary in Georgia. The system was introduced nationwide on 31 December 2017 and has largely been received as positive and sensible. Nevertheless, it is still dogged by too many technical problems, which necessitate further evaluation and improvements.

EU Technical Assistance Project: Facility for the Implementation of the Association Agreement in Georgia

The IRZ implemented this EU project in Georgia – which is equipped with a budget of €2 million – under the leadership of the Belgian partner IBF from July 2015 onward. It came to an end officially in December 2018.

Within the project, the main beneficiary partner, the Georgian Governmental Commission for EU Integration, received assistance in the implementation of the EU’s bilateral agreements with Georgia (Association Agreement, Free Trade Agreement, Visa Liberalisation Agreement and the Association Agenda). Another objective of the project was to introduce institutional reforms that are necessary for implementation of the bilateral agreements. In addition, the project supported the continued development and realisation of the communications and information strategy by the Georgian government in connection with the bilateral agreements with the EU.

  • Overall, ten different training activities, workshops or other events were carried out within the framework of Component 1, including measures to combat fraud, as well as in the areas of culture, disaster management, public relations and presentation, instruments of external assistance and Georgia‘s foreign policies.
  • Project Component 2 featured a number of training courses on practical implementation of the Legal Assessment Manual and the guidelines for Georgia, with the objective of consolidating knowledge on the process of legal harmonisation through sector-specific activities designed to consolidate capacities.
  • A nationwide information campaign was carried out as part of the activities within Component 3 (implementation of the EU and Georgian communications and information strategy). Moreover, the project was involved in drafting the action plan for the Communications Strategy 2018 concerning Georgia‘s membership in the EU and NATO for 2017 to 2020.

EU Technical Assistance Project: Legislative Impact Assessment, Drafting and Representation

The EU project, which started in April 2015, was brought to a successful conclusion in August 2018. In addition to the IRZ, CILC from the Netherlands was involved as a junior partner in the international consortium under the leadership of IBF from Belgium. The project term was forty months and the budget amounted to approx. €2 million.

The main beneficiary was the Georgian Ministry of Justice, with participation by other state institutions in Georgia. The project was divided into the following three components:

  • strengthening of capacities among relevant state stakeholders in the decision-making processes and legislation, with a particular prioritisation of the Georgian Ministry of Justice;
  • support for the Ministry of Justice in its representative function toward international courts and organisations;
  • strengthening and ongoing development of the Centre for the Translation of Georgian Laws into English, i.e. of EU acts of law with relevance to Georgia into the Georgian language.

More than one hundred activities were carried out within the project components. They included numerous training courses for members of parliament, government representatives and employees of the Ministry of Justice.

In addition to the preparation of guidelines and a manual on harmonising legislation with the EU Acquis, the project also included the development of extensive methods and concepts for regulatory impact assessment, as well as guidelines to improve government capacities in the legislative and decision-making processes.

Large-scale training courses and train the trainer courses were also held within the project to promote harmonisation of legislation and draft legislation; moreover, strategy papers were prepared on a variety of issues as a means of providing insight and recommendations for the basic outlines of future reforms.

In order to guarantee the sustainability of project outcomes, it would be desirable that the government continue its current efforts and that trainers, who specialised within the framework of this project, will act as multipliers.

Outlook

A number of important projects like the preparation of a manual of forms for the judiciary and Public Prosecutor‘s Office should continue and be brought to a positive conclusion. A strengthening of the proven cooperation with the Bar is also under consideration. For instance, this might enable the inclusion of courses by German lawyers as an integral part of legal training, for which the Georgian Bar is responsible and which is currently undergoing fundamental reform.

A large number of activities are also scheduled within the EU project on judiciary reform. For instance, the High Council of Justice will receive stronger support in implementing the judicial reform strategy; this will also involve communicating the content and significance of this strategy to the judiciary at national level. Moreover, a new fundament will be established for the recruitment and management of judiciary staff through the introduction of uniform, clear standards and guidelines.

 

Georgia - annual report 2017

Expert talk on the revision of Art. 136 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia with the Legal Affairs Committee of the Parliament of Georgia: Prof. Dr. Nino Gvenetadze, President of the Supreme Court of Georgia; Eka Beselia, Chairperson of the Legal Affairs Committee; Dr. Wolfgang Bär, judge at the Federal Supreme Court (presidium from left to right)
Expert talk on the revision of Art. 136 of the Criminal Procedure Code of Georgia with the Legal Affairs Committee of the Parliament of Georgia: Prof. Dr. Nino Gvenetadze, President of the Supreme Court of Georgia; Eka Beselia, Chairperson of the Legal Affairs Committee; Dr. Wolfgang Bär, judge at the Federal Supreme Court (presidium from left to right)

Legal Policy Situation

Georgia is part of the EU’s Eastern Partnership and remains on a course of democratisation and economic modernisation. The country aims to integrate into the European and transatlantic community. The EU Parliament, the European Commission and other international players praise Georgia for its continued positive development and intend to work together even more closely. Following the signing of the EU Association Agreement, the EU Parliament gave the go-ahead to the lifting of visa requirements for Georgian nationals in March 2017 who have since been allowed to enter the EU without a visa.

On 21 October 2017, regional elections were held in Georgia, which were won by the “Georgian Dream” governing coalition. Nevertheless, the constitutional reform initiated by the government in the year under review is meeting with some controversy in the country, especially with regard to the revision of the electoral law or the abolition of the direct election of the President of the Republic. The constitutional reform process has not yet been concluded, but the new constitution is still due to enter into force in 2018.

Overall concept

The main focus of the IRZ’s consultations in Georgia is on criminal law issues. In the year under review, support was given to the Supreme Court, the Georgian Bar Association and the lawyer’s association, the Public Prosecutor’s Office, the Georgian Parliament’s Committee on Legal Affairs, the Penitentiary and Probation Training Center (PPTC) and the State University of Tbilisi. The cooperation consists of accompanying legal reforms, supporting legal practitioners by providing further training and strengthening the professional bodies.

The IRZ is in close contact with the Georgian Ministry of Justice in order to support legislative steps to align national law closer to EU standards.

In addition, the IRZ was also involved in the implementation of three EU projects during the year under review (see below).

Foci of Activity 2017

Constitutional Law/Human Rights and their Enforceability

  • Three further training sessions for Georgian lawyers on the application of the ECHR and European law in Tbilisi

Civil and Commercial Law

  • Lecture and discussion event on the topic of “Mediation in Germany and Georgia” in cooperation with the Georgian Bar Association and the Federal Bar Association (BRAK) in Tbilisi
  • Working visit of a delegation of the Georgian Bar Association to Berlin on the subject of “Arbitrage/Mediation”
  • Round Table on civil procedural issues in commercial and corporate law disputes in cooperation with the Georgian Advocates Association in Tbilisi

Administration of Justice

  • Conference of the Memorandum Group of Judges’ Associations from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland and Ukraine in Tbilisi

Criminal Law and Penitentiary Law

  • Expert talks of the President of the Supreme Court of Georgia, Prof. Dr. Nino Gvenetadze, at the Higher Regional Court of Bremen and Bremen Regional Court as well as participation in a panel discussion at the initiative of the Bremen Legal Society
  • Conference on criminal law sanctions and sentencing in Tbilisi
  • Expert discussion on the amendment of Art. 136 of the Georgian Criminal Procedure Act (request for computer data) at the Committee on Legal Affairs of the Georgian Parliament in Tbilisi
  • Drafting of a manual (of forms) for the criminal proceedings for the judges in cooperation with the High Council of Justice of Georgia
  • Training on European standards in the framework of investigations and pre-trial detention for the Georgian Prosecutor’s Office
  • Continuation of the deliberations of the Supreme Court of Georgia and the High Council of Justice on electronic case allocation
  • Training series for prison staff dealing with special groups of prisoners (women, minors, etc.)
  • Online specialist publication “German-Georgian Criminal Law Journal” (www.dgstz.de) for the publication of academic articles, conference reports and case law. This publication serves the purpose of comparative law and better networking between German and Georgian academics in all areas of criminal law and is intended to provide an overview of all German-Georgian projects in this context.

Basic and Further Training

  • Participation of two Georgian law students in the IRZ “German Law summer school” in Bonn, Germany
  • National Moot Court in constitutional law for Georgian law students in Batumi

Projects financed by the European Union

EU Technical Assistance Project: Legislative Impact Assessment, Drafting and Representation

This project has been carried out since April 2015 in an international consortium led by the Belgian company IBF with a budget of almost 2 million euros. It was scheduled to have ended in October 2017 but was extended until April 2018 to complete some important activities. The main beneficiary is the Georgian Ministry of Justice.

In terms of content, the project is divided into three components with different objectives: to improve legislative processes, to make the Ministry of Justice more familiar with international law, human rights and arbitration and to promote the development of a Centre for the Translation of Georgian legal texts into English.

An important result of the project is a handbook and guidelines on the systematic harmonisation of legislation with EU law, which the IRZ expert had developed, and which will become a binding instrument in the legislative process of Georgia in the future. This instrument was introduced to government representatives at a conference in Tbilisi in June 2017. Its application at the technical level is already being accompanied by appropriate training courses.

A needs-oriented training concept on legislative techniques and political decision-making has also been developed, which is being applied in training courses for civil servants, members of parliament and government representatives. The focus is on the area of legal impact assessment as a central component of qualitative legislation, which is why additional trainers and mentors were trained for this purpose. Other activities included the training of civil servants on the representation of Georgia at international organisations and courts, as well as training on specific issues of private international law, which are often relevant to civil servants

EU Technical Assistance Project: Facility for the Implementation of the Association Agreement in Georgia

Together with the Belgian partner IBF, the IRZ will carry out this project with a budget of 2 million euros up to May 2018. The main beneficiary partner, the Georgian Governmental Commission for EU Integration, will be assisted in the implementation of the EU’s bilateral agreements with Georgia (Association Agreement, Free Trade Agreement, Visa Liberalisation Agreement and the Association Agenda, all grouped under the term “Association Agreement”).

The year 2017 included a large number of measures that can only be listed by way of example. On the one hand, the project team established guidelines for the coordination, planning and monitoring of government programmes. In addition, policy papers have been drawn up to assist the Georgian authorities in the proper planning, in particular the timely implementation of the Association Agreement. A roadmap of measures to set up an anti-fraud system was also discussed. Furthermore, EU external assistance remained an intensive project component: work on establishing the joint monitoring and evaluation system in Georgia was completed and the monitoring and evaluation guidelines for EU-funded programmes/projects were developed and coordinated with the beneficiary. Information on possible participation in EU projects, the availability of EU funds and the criteria for their allocation were explained to the project partner.

In the area of the Free Trade Agreement, activities have been offered to align legislation, to introduce reform measures to remove technical barriers to trade (TBT) and to promote trade facilitation. At the consultative meetings, attention was paid to the fact that private companies were also included in order to make planned legislative measures transparent.

EU Technical Assistance Project: Support to the Independence, Accountability and Efficiency of the Judiciary in Georgia

Since October 2016, the IRZ has been a partner in another EU-funded contract in Georgia. During the 32-month contract period, the consortium, led by the consulting company Human Dynamics (HD), is supporting the Supreme Court, the High Judicial Council, the High School of Justice, the Constitutional Court and various courts in increasing the independence, efficiency and impartiality of Georgian judiciary. In terms of content, the project partly follows on from the project “Support to the Reform of the Criminal Justice System in Georgia” (2012-2015), which was also completed successfully by the IRZ and HD.

The IRZ is involved intensively in the project through the assignment of short-term experts, but above all through its Georgian long-term expert with a focus on European human rights standards. This expert has already conducted various seminars and workshops for judges and other court staff. In terms of content, the issues discussed included cases of importance for Georgia under the ECHR as well as EU law. However, practical assistance was also offered for day-to-day legal research and the optimisation of legal terminology for the writing of judgments. The work of the IRZ expert – together with the Human Rights Department within the Supreme Court – has made considerable progress in developing a database containing important ECHR rulings. Some of these were also translated into the Georgian language. This is how the understanding of the importance of the ECHR in Georgia is to be further augmented and, at the same time, the ability to apply these standards in a competent manner is to be increased.

Together with the High Council of Justice, the project also developed a comprehensive strategy for judicial reform from 2017 to 2022 as well as an action plan for its implementation for 2017 and 2018, including seminars to enhance the efficiency of the judiciary, joint events for the judiciary and the legal profession, and workshops on public finance management.

Outlook

For the year 2018, the IRZ plans to continue bilateral cooperation with all previous Georgian partner institutions. Discussions will continue, above all, in the field of criminal and procedural law. In particular, there are plans to intensify the support of the judges in the form of cooperation with the Georgian Supreme Court and the Tbilisi Appellate Court.

Cooperation with the Georgian advocacy should also be continued because of their key role as a significant link between citizenship and the state. Following the elections to the board of directors within the Georgian Bar Association in December 2017, the IRZ will also work closely with their future representatives and continue to involve the Federal German Bar Association. The hands-on, professional exchange with German colleagues remains of great importance for the Georgian side. At the request of the Public Prosecutor’s Office, the seminar on undercover investigations and pre-trial detention, the high practical value of which was emphasised by all parties involved, is to be repeated for further groups of participants. A project on media law, a subject of particular relevance especially to Georgia, is also being considered.

Two of the three EU-funded projects in Georgia will be completed by the beginning of 2018. In 2018, the third EU project for the judiciary will include a number of activities to implement the above-mentioned Judicial Strategy Action Plan, in which the IRZ will participate. For instance, training courses for the newly elected members of the High Council of Justice should be mentioned here by way of example, which are held to provide them with detailed information on the concrete objectives and content of the strategy paper and action plan. The project team will also work with the High Council of Justice to develop an evaluation system for the implementation of the action plan.

Georgia - annual report 2016

Specialist discussions in Tbilisi between the Georgian Supreme Court and the Bremen Higher Regional Court: Karen Buse, President of the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court of Bremen; Prof. Dr. Nino Gvenetadze (right), President of the Georgian Supreme Court

Specialist discussions in Tbilisi between the Georgian Supreme Court and the Bremen Higher Regional Court: Karen Buse, President of the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court of Bremen; Prof. Dr. Nino Gvenetadze (right), President of the Georgian Supreme Court

Strategic Framework

Legal Policy Starting Point

Parliamentary elections took place in Georgia on 8 October 2016. The pro-west government party “Georgian Dream” was reconfirmed in office with 50 % of the votes cast. The opposition party “United National Movement” achieved just 26 % of the votes and is the second strongest party in the Georgian Parliament. The new government, which in part represents a continuation of the old government, was constituted in November. The Minister of Justice, Tea Tsulukiani, also remains in office.

Georgia remains on a course of consistent reform and has for several years rightly been considered as one of the most progressive countries within the Eastern Partnership with regard to democratic structures, political stability and pluralism. The country plans to consistently pursue this reform policy. In the field of justice, the government’s aims continue to include the reformation of the legal and the judicial system, compliance with European standards in national law and the strengthening of an independent judiciary.

Overall Concept

The IRZ works in Georgia on the basis of a Joint Declaration between the German Federal Ministry of Justice and the Georgian Ministry of Justice. In this context, criminal law and the implementation of international agreements into national law have been defined as the most important topics. Most of the activities currently take place in the criminal law field. In addition to consultation on individual amendment projects for the relevant legislation, most recently on the Code of Criminal Procedure, the IRZ devotes itself to the improvement of case-law in criminal proceedings, investigative activities of the Georgian Public Prosecutor’s Office in conformity with human rights and proper representation by criminal defence lawyers. This aim is served by cooperation with judges at various Georgian courts who are intended to develop a close network with German courts. Similarly, Georgian lawyers are reached through further training and specialist conferences. The Georgian side considers practice-oriented specialist exchanges with German colleagues very important.

Last but not least, the IRZ also promotes the exchange between Georgian and German academics on the further development of criminal law and the further assimilation of Georgian to European standards.

Foci of Activity 2016

Constitutional Law / Human Rights and their Enforceability

  • Three further training events in Tbilisi for Georgian lawyers on the application of the European Convention on Human Rights and European law
  • National moot court in Batumi on constitutional law for Georgian law students

Civil and Commercial Law

  • Lecture and discussion event in Tbilisi entitled “Immoral business and extortion – statutory regulation and case-law” within the framework of the initiative “Law - Made in Germany” in cooperation with the Georgian Bar and the German Federal Bar
  • Specialist conference in Tbilisi for the Georgian Bar on civil procedure issues, including accelerated proceedings and data protection

Criminal Law and Penitentiary Law

  • Visit by a delegation of the High Council of Justice of Georgia to the German Federal Supreme Court and the Bremen Higher Regional Court
  • Specialist discussions in Tbilisi between the Georgian Supreme Court and the Bremen Higher Regional Court as the start to a possible court partnership
  • Specialist discussions between the Hamburg Regional Court and the Appeal Court of Tbilisi on the issues “Importance and difficulties of indirect testimony (hearsay) in criminal procedure law” and “Usability in court of information obtained illegally” in the course of the cooperation of both courts
  • Preparation of a (standard form) handbook of criminal procedure for the judiciary in cooperation with the High Council of Justice of Georgia
    Study visit to Germany by representatives of the Georgian General Prosecutor’s Office, including the issues of juvenile criminal justice, basic and further training, communication/public relations work and the judgment system
  • Roundtable discussions for representatives of the judiciary, the Public Prosecutor’s Office and the media on the subject “Investigations against holders of office” in cooperation with the Justice Ministry Training Centre
  • Academic conference in Tbilisi on the Europeanisation of Georgian commercial criminal law in cooperation with the University of Georgia
  • Project to investigate Georgian criminal justice, in particular decision-making practice, from 2005 to 2016 in cooperation with the Deutschen Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
  • 13-day further training course for a total of 50 criminal justice staff on the treatment of prisoners (international standards, hunger strikes, use of compulsion, etc.)
  • Online specialist publication “German-Georgian Criminal Law Journal” (www.dgstz.de): publication of academic articles, conference reports and case-law

Basic and Further Training

  • Participation by two Georgian law students at the IRZ “German law” summer school in Brühl and Bonn
  • Participation by two winners of the Moot Court 2015 at the Bonn International Model United Nations Conference in Germany

EU Projects

Outlook

In 2017, the projects will mainly follow up on the work to date. For example, the aim is to complete the handbook of criminal procedure for the judiciary mentioned above, a measure designed to improve the quality of first-instance criminal judgments. Closer support for reforms in the correctional system is intended, if possible. This sphere remains subject to significant changes. The competent Ministry of Correction, the Training Centre PPTC belonging to it, and the Probation Agency have requested further support, for example in the sphere of women’s and juvenile prisons. In addition, the continued tenure of the Minister of Justice beyond 2016 offers the opportunity to further develop the existing cooperation with the Ministry.

Download the entire IRZ annual report in PDF format here: annual report 2016.