Further training for judges on topics relevant to the economy

Graphics: IRZ
Graphics: IRZ
Bosnia and Herzegovina

A whole range of legal issues, which are also relevant to the business community, were addressed in a two-day online seminar on 6 and 7 May 2021. The event was organised by the Centre for Judicial and Prosecutorial Training of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and IRZ. Around 100 judges from all parts of the country took part.

The background to this is the implementation of the Property Law Act passed in 2013, which replaced numerous legal institutions still originating from socialism. The new legal institutions have partly been modelled on German and Austrian ones, e.g. real estate property and land charges.

The speakers at the seminar were Professor Dr Meliha Povlakić and lecturer Dr Darija Softić Kadenić. Both have not only completed numerous research stays in German-speaking countries, but are also active as legal advisers and experts. Professor Povlakić also worked in a notary's office in Munich during a stay of several years in Germany, while Dr Softić Kadenić completed a master's degree at the Faculty of Law in Graz.

Because of the thematic connection, questions of credit security were also discussed in addition to questions of property law on real estate property and the function of the land register.

Since the speakers brought in judgements from national practice in addition to comparative law experiences, the event provided an opportunity for exchange between practising legal experts and academics. This exchange of opinions and materials was continued after the event by some participants via email.

The relevance of the topics discussed was also demonstrated by the lively discussions between all the participants.

Online Seminar on Ethics and disciplinary Processes

Graphics: IRZ
Graphics: IRZ
Bosnia and Herzegovina

On 24 February 2021, an online seminar on the “Judicial Code of Ethics and the Practice of disciplinary Processes” was organised by the Centre for Judicial and Prosecutorial Training of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (CEST FBiH) and IRZ. 69 judges and public prosecutors took part in the event. The high number of participants underlined the significance of the subject.

Dr. Davor Trlin opened the event on behalf of the CEST FBiH, whilst IRZ Head of Section Dr. Stefan Pürner welcomed the participants on behalf of IRZ. The speaker at the seminar was the former President of the Constitutional Court of the State of Saxony-Anhalt and of the Higher Regional Court of Naumberg and long-standing Senior Public Prosecutor, Winfried Schubert.

In the first section of his two-part lecture, Winfried Schubert outlined the way the disciplinary process for judges and public prosecutors works in Germany, with the help of some practical examples.

The second part of his lecture focussed on the judicial code of ethics. The speaker pointed out that appropriate behaviour does not just concern the circumstances of the case, which could become the subject of a disciplinary process. Winfried Schubert talked about judicial self-perception and the danger of self-righteousness amongst judges. He also discussed the risk of judges being influenced in their decisions by their own personal moral understanding, instead of construing the law. He stressed the importance of a realistic self-perception and self-image in overcoming these challenges.

Conference on “Dissenting opinions in constitutional jurisdiction” with the participation of regional constitutional courts

Graphics: IRZ
Graphics: IRZ
Bosnia and Herzegovina

On 11 December 2020, IRZ and the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina organised a regional conference on “Dissenting opinions in constitutional jurisdiction”. Judges from the constitutional courts of Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia also took part in the online event.

During the first part of the conference, the speakers presented the possibility of dissenting opinions in the case law of the participating constitutional courts and the relevant practices in this area. The speakers were:

  • Zlatko M. Knežević, President of the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Hamdija Šarkinović, interim director of the Constitutional Court of Montenegro
  • Dr. Mato Arlović, a judge at the Constitutional Court of Croatia,
  • Sali Murati, President of the Constitutional Court of North Macedonia
  • Prof. Dr. Rajko Knez, President of the Constitutional Court of Slovenia
  • Snežana Marković, President of the Constitutional Court of Serbia

The German point of view was provided by Prof. Dr. Michael Eichberger, a former constitutional court judge in Germany. The lectures mapped out many similarities, as well as some different positions, which led to intense discussions and a lively exchange of experiences.

One common feature for all the constitutional courts represented at the conference is the possibility of a dissenting opinion, which is relatively new to the region. These can be dissenting opinions, which disagree with the majority opinion, as well as dissent in the form of simply demonstrating an alternative way of reasoning.

The participants underlined the positive aspect of an announcement of a dissenting opinion by a judge being enough to provoke more in-depth discussions in the relevant Senate and very well-founded reasoning by the majority. They also reported on cases, in which the majority was led to revise its original opinion once it had analysed a dissenting opinion. Since the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg adheres in isolated cases to the dissenting opinion and not to the majority opinion when reviewing decisions, a dissenting opinion can also encourage scientific debate of the legal issue in question. Dissenting opinions can, however, also have negative effects, such as when their reporting in the media gives the impression that a constitutional court is not united. The participants therefore agreed that dissenting opinions should be reserved for rare cases in which, out of principle, a judge cannot defend being identified with the majority verdict. Dissenting opinions should on no account be used with a view to potential re-election, for example, or to continue a career beyond the end of a judge’s official mandate in certain political circumstances.

Background information

IRZ organises the annual regional conference on constitutional law, which is financed by the German Federal Foreign Office (AA), in turn with the constitutional courts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia or Montenegro.

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